Conversion tables - Return

Temperature Conversions

Celcius (C) Fahrenheit (F) Gas Mark Classification
70 150    
80 175    
100 200    
110 225 Very cool
120 250 Very cool
140 275 1 Cool
150 300 2 Cool
160 325 3 Warm
180 350 4 Moderate
190 375 5 Fairly hot
200 400 6 Fairly hot
220 425 7 Hot
230 450 8 Very hot
240 475 9 Very hot

Most bread is baked in the temperature range 200-240C.  Timing is approximately 15-20 minutes for rolls and 25-30 minutes for bread loaves.  The precise timing depends on factors like moisture and mass of the dough, and the type of flour used.

Emmer, spelt and khorasan flours tend to bake best at the cooler end of the range (190C) whilst most modern wheat flours tend to bake better at the higher end of the range (230C).

To simulate an ancient oven, set the temperature to 230C and preheat a baking sheet.  Place the risen dough loaf on the baking sheet in the oven and close the door. Turn the oven down by 10C at the start and thereafter every 6 minutes until the bread is done.  This will simulate the natural cooling of a clay oven.

Some Teflon coated pans have a temperature limit of 220C and will become unstable and degrade if used at higher temperatures.  The stability of the coating is somewhat dependent on its thickness - so buy the best you can afford.